The interplanetary shock of September 24, 1998: Arrival at Earth

C. T. Russell, Y. L. Wang, J. Raeder, R. L. Tokar, C. W. Smith, K. W. Ogilvie, A. J. Lazarus, R. P. Lepping, A. Szabo, H. Kawano, T. Mukai, S. Savin, Y. I. Yermolaev, X.-Y. Zhou, and B. T. Tsurutani

Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California Los Angeles


At close to 2345 UT on September 24, 1998, the magnetosphere was suddenly compressed by the passage of an interplanetary shock. In order to properly interpret the magnetospheric events triggered by the arrival of this shock, we calculate the orientation of the shock, its velocity, and its estimated time of arrival at the nose of the magnetosphere. Our best fit shock normal has an orientation of (-0.981 -0.157 -0.112) in solar ecliptic coordinates, a speed of 769 km/s, and an arrival time of 2344:19 at the magnetopause at 10 RE. Since measurements of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field are available from multiple spacecraft, we can compare several different techniques of shock-normal determination. Of the single spacecraft techniques the magnetic coplanarity solution is most accurate and the mixed mode solution is of lesser accuracy. Uncertainty in the timing and location of the IMP 8 spacecraft limits the accuracy of solutions using the time of arrival at the position of IMP 8.

J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 105, No. A11, 25,143-25,154, 2000